Carbohydrates such as sugars and starch are the primary source of energy in cereals and defatted protein crops. Carbohydrases like α-amylase enzymes catalyze the breakdown of carbohydrates.
Fiber is indigestible plant matter from cell wall components consisting of non‐starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and lignin. NSPs are complex carbohydrates found in plant cell walls that are not degraded by endogenous enzymes during digestion. NSPs include cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins & beta-glucans. All NSPs are polymers, linear or branched, comprised of one or more types of monomers. Celluloses are large, linear polymers of glucose.
enhance protein digestion. Endogenous proteases (or peptidases) are secreted by animals for a number of physiological processes, including the digestion of feed protein. Proteases break down larger proteins into smaller fragments that are absorbed more easily in the small intestine. Proteins in cereal diets are never fully digested. Exogenous proteases can be added to the diet to improve the protein digestibility of feed ingredients and improve intestinal health (less substrate available to pathogenic bacteria), to improve reduce feed costs, to make lower protein inclusion rates viable (valorization of byproducts)
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that affects growth and reproduction. Phytase enzymes release plant phosphorus from phytate (phytic acid bound to minerals & proteins), the principal storage form of phosphorus in grains used for animal feed. During digestion phytate is hydrolyzed to phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate /IP6) and lower inositol polyphosphates (IP5 through IP1). Phytases break down phytic acid by removing a phosphate group from its substrate to release a usable form of inorganic phosphorus.